Tonsils and Adenoid


The tissues, tonsil and adenoid, are composed of lymphoid cells. They take part in lymphocyte production. They are small in newborn babies due to the immunoglobulin transferred from the mother. They grow in size especially during 4 to 5 age period depending on infections. They tend to get smaller in old age. Large size of adenoids obstructs respiration through the nose. It also causes disorders of various magnitudes by disrupting the discharging of ears and sinuses. Hearing loss, snoring, oral respiration, night coughs, and nasal flow are observed with these children. Chronic adenoid inflammations or enlargements may cause orthodontic disorders, problems with facial development, and speech impediments.
When tonsil and adenoid enlargements come to the point of narrowing the upper respiratory tract, they trigger serious problems such as snoring and apnea, being out of breath during sleep. In such cases, it is best for the patient to consult an ENT specialist.
The disease known as rheumatic fever is a complication caused by the antibodies, which are produced against group A beta hemolytic streptococcus. This disease may result in disorders in the cardiac valves.


Tonsil and adenoid surgeries are often performed at ENT clinics. When medicine treatment becomes ineffective, surgical removal of these body parts are resorted. There are two criteria for deciding this operation.
The necessity for an operation is determined as being either certain or relative.
The circumstances that require certain surgical operation:
When the upper respiratory tract is obstructed due to tonsil and adenoid enlargements
Abscess around the tonsils (peritonsillar abscess)
Suspected malignant tumor
Adenoid and tonsil enlargements that deform chin structure
Frequently recurring tonsil inflammations are at the top of the relative criteria.
40% of tonsil operations are performed due to this reason.
Undergoing febrile tonsil inflammation for 7 times during the last year, for 5 times in each year during the last two years, for 3 times in each year during the last three years or more.
Carriers of diphtheria germs
People having cardiac valve disorders
Frequently undergoing middle ear inflammation due to the inflammation of tonsils and adenoids
These conditions are called “chronic tonsil inflammation”. Surgical operation is recommended and planned for treatment.


Although tonsil disease is commonly known as a childhood issue, the same rules apply for adults as well. Tonsil surgery can also be performed on adults who do not have any serious health issues that may prevent a surgical operation. The lower age limit is set to 3-4 ages with the exception of compulsory circumstances. It is impossible to define an upper age limit. In general, the odds for undergoing this disease during further ages are low, and simple treatment methods are usually preferred.


Risks of tonsil surgeries are quite slim. Bleeding ratio after the surgery is at a very low rate of 5/1000. There have been numerous scientific researches on the defense system of the body after tonsil operations, but no conclusive result has been obtained. It is demonstrated that some types of lymphocytes decreased in number in the case of people who removed their tonsils. However, there is no finding that confirms removing tonsils causes clinical problems. There is a common belief that people get pharyngitis more easily after undergoing tonsil surgery. However, the rate of having pharyngitis is the same for people who removed their tonsils and people who did not. Removing tonsils do not increase the likelihood of having pharyngitis.

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